Measures for climate protection and efficiency increase do not only directly lead to reduced impacts on the environment and less energy imports but also have various direct and indirect economic effects. On the one hand there are direct demand changes, on the other hand costs of financing increase. In the long run the investments reduce energy demand and lower the cost of production for companies or increase the scope of spending of private households. The establishment of lead markets also creates export potentials if other countries follow this path. Within this study, the options for efficiency increase and climate protection in Germany are comprehensively analysed with respect to their technical and economic potential, the groups of stakeholders addressed, the chances for export and the gaps in the political instruments. Moreover, the economic effects of an ambitious efficiency strategy are modelled.