PANTA RHEI is an extended version of macroeconometric simulation and forecasting model INFORGE, designed for analysing questions in the environmental economics field. The name, a quotation from the Greek philosopher Heraclites, means “everything flows” and sums up our approach perfectly. It models long-term structural change in economic development and in environmental-economic interdependencies. In addition to comprehensive economic modelling with our core INFORGE model, it also models energy consumption, air pollution, transport and land use and housing to a high level of detail.

Links between model components are consistent. The transport module, for example, models fuel consumption in litres, which, multiplied by the price per litre, feeds into input demand from the manufacturing sector and demand for consumer goods. Changes to fuel tax rates result in changes to tax receipts and a broad range of economic adaptation processes.

However, changes in fuel prices also lead to changes in behaviour, which are also considered in our model. The model is resolved with full interdependence, meaning that the effects of a policy measure disseminate to all model variables simultaneously, and no effects are lost.

PANTA RHEI incorporates a multitude of macroeconomic variables drawn from various official statistics, in particular national and environmental-economic accounts (including input-output account) and provides sector-by-sector information on 63 industrial sectors. It also incorporates energy balances (including satellite balances for renewable energy) and German Federal Environment Agency emissions data.

The model has been used for a variety of purposes in recent years, including the 2010 Energy Scenario, to identify the net employment effects of renewable energy and to provide the basis for the progress report on energy transition monitoring.



Technological, ecological, economic and strategic aspects of the national climate change initiative (NKI)
Entwicklung und Bereitstellung des Anwendermodells PANTA RHEI zur Abschätzung der Wirkungen umweltpolitischer Maßnahmen und Instrumente
Impact Assessment of the climate protection plan in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Macroeconomic effects of the Energy Transition
Energiewende and international aspects – opportunities and challenges for German politics and industry
Employment from renewable energy in Germany: expansion and operation – now and in the future
Energy scenarios for the German energy concept
Short and long term labour market effects of an increase of renewable energy
Cornerstones of a sustainable welfare model as a basis for environmental policy descision makers
Macro economic and distributional effects of the German Energiewende
Green Economy: Measuring sustainable welfare using System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) data
Detailed economic analysis of individual policy instruments and measures for climate change adaptation
Integrated sustainability assessment and optimization of energy systems
Approaches for further development of public finances
Potentials and risks of green future markets
Costs of Climate Change Impacts in Germany
Weiterentwicklung des PANTA RHEI-Modells
Materialeffizienz und Ressourcenschonung (MaRess)
Energiepolitische Optionen
Kosten und Nutzen Erneuerbarer Energien
Grundlagen und Eckpunkte für ein energiewirtschaftliches Gesamtkonzept für Bayern
Die ökologischen und ökonomischen Wirkungen eines nachhaltigen Konsums in Deutschland
Prüfmodule für die Gesetzesfolgenabschätzung (GFA) – Workshops und Machbarkeitsstudien zur Nutzung von PANTA RHEI in der GFA
Vernetzung von Klimaszenarien mit weiteren Szenarien aus dem ökologischen und gesellschaftlichen Bereich
Ökonomie der Anpassung an den Klimawandel
Wirkungen des Ausbaus Erneuerbarer Energien (Impact of Renewable Energy Sources)
Analyse der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekte des Energiemarkts
Volkswirtschaftliche Bewertung von Klimaschutzmaßnahmen und -instrumenten
Ökonomische Fragen des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien
Beschäftigungschancen auf dem Weg zu einer Green Economy – szenarienbasierte Analyse von (Netto-)Beschäftigungswirkungen
Private Haushalte als Schlüsselakteure einer Transformation des Energiesystems: Empfehlungen für eine sozial-ökologisch orientierte Förderpolitik. Teilvorhaben 3: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Modellierung
Weiterentwicklung des PANTA-RHEI-Modells
Sektorale ökonomische Modellierung zur Integration in eine regionale Erdsystem-Modellierung – CSC Sektorale Modellierung
Study on Tax Reform in Europe over the next decades: implication for the environment, for eco-innovation and for household distribution
Update energiewirtschaftliches Gesamtkonzept für Bayern
Analyse und Modellierung der Energieverbrauchsentwicklung